Feng Shui Tradition


Mar. 2008, Volume 4, Number 2: 108-119

Dongjie Zhang, PhD

Tao Wang

Nanjing Normal University, Analytic Testing Center & Appraisal Research Center

Original paper from blog of professor Dongjie Zhang, http://blog.focus.cn/~zdj2006



The origin and development of architecture fengshui is strong related to Chinese cultural development history. This is part of evidence and reflection of ancient Chinese culture. The circulated mountain, surrounded water, hided from wind and accumulated qi is the fundamental characteristics of architecture fengshui to appear in the modern scientific evidence. The unification of the heaven and human beings as one demonstrates perfect in architecture fengshui. It is unlike many non-mainstream fengshui practitioners to boast its superstitious effect and function. Architecture fengshui can be proved by the solid scientific theories and evidences.

Key words: Architecture fengshui, modern science, unification of human beings and heaven as one, ancient culture


1. Origin and development and architecture fengshui

1.1 Architecture fengshui is long historical symbol of original culture of China

The concept of fengshui began the first fengshui book Zang Jing (Burial Book) by Pu Guo of Jin Dynasty. The Zang Jing described that, “Qi flows by wind to disperse around and to stop after reaching water. Ancient persons, in order to accumulate qi not to disperse, and to move and stop at will, called it fengshui.” “Method of fengshui is that the best one is to receive water and the second best one is to store wind inside.” “Control with proper addition and deduction will reach the good fengshui result.” In fact, Qin Nia San Shen Zang Jing by Qing Nia Zi of Han Dynasty already has preliminary concept of fengshui. The book has described, “The internal qi starts to grow. The external qi begins to form. The internal qi and external qi becomes multiplication. Thus, fengshui exists by itself.” According to the references, the concept of fengshui already appeared in the Han Dynasty. However, the main concept of fengshui is based on “the qi flowing by wind to disperse around and to stop after reaching water”. It is according to this natural environmental phenomenon as fundamental regularity to understand and control whole concept. This is subjective feeling of our living environment. After developed by many generations, we derive a complete sophisticated theory of fengshui.

The development of fengshui theory is the results of numerous practical experience conclusion by many people. In general, the (scientific) theories of fengshui in the ancient time is far behind than the practical practice.

Then, how long can we trace back the idea of architecture fengshui beginning? The pivotal core model of architecture fengshui is based on qinglong, baihu, xuanwu, and zhuque, known as “shishen” (four gods) or “shiliang” (four spirits). According to Shan Fu Huang Tu, it described, “Qinglong, baihu, xuanwu, and zhuque are the shiling (four spirits) of the heaven to control and adjust all around.” In 1988, the picture of qinglong and baihu appeared in Hanan, which can trace back to Yangshao Culture Period around 6,000 years ago. At that time, Chinese already had the concept of “shishen” (four gods). The pattern of “shishen” (four gods) and the Big Dipper, and twenty-eight xing su connecting very close was unearthed in a tomb of Hubei Province, which can trace back 433BC. In the Shi Ji: Tian Guan Su by Ma Quan Shi of Han Dynasty, it describes this correspondence phenomenon between the heaven and human beings, which description is that “all stars are located at their proper position. Their physical body is born from the earth. Their soul ascends to the heaven. Their relations are very complicated. They have their own belongings.” From all references, all researchers agree that the concept of architecture fengshui already exists in China for at least 6,000 years.

1.2. Fengshui and the Book of Change (Yi Jing)

Does fengshui originate from the Book of Chang (Yi Jing)? The answer is no.

We have the following reasons:

a. Which concept came first: The concept of qinglong and baihu of shishen (four gods) in architecture fengshui already existed, which is far earlier than the Book of Change (Yi Jing).

b. Early concept of fengshui: The Zang Jing (Burial Book) described, “Qi flows by wind to disperse around and to stop after reaching water. Ancient persons, in order to accumulate qi not to disperse and to move and stop at will, called it fengshui.” It primary discusses the relationship between qi, wind and water. It never shows any philosophy of the Book of Change (Yi Jing).

c. Level and development question: Inhibiting building and ancient people is very close. First, the Book of Change (Yi Jing) is very high intelligent and cultural production. Secondly. architecture fengshui can trace back very, very long time that should be connected to cultural history of Chinese for at least five thousands years.

What is the relationship between fengshui and the Book of Change (Yi Jing)? After the Book of Change (Yi Jing) has been developed, people began to use the philosophy of the Book of Change (Yi Jing) to apply and develop to the Fengshui. This idea makes the architecture fengshui diversify its development. Therefore, in this process, fengshui is involved in many superstitions and unreasonable thoughts in our daily life.


Evolutional development of architecture fengshui as following table 1:


Table. 1 Evolution development of architecture fengshui

Developing year Concept Application
Yangsao Cultural Period
6,000 years or longer

Yi Jing involvement  


Circulated mountain
Unification the Heaven 
 and human beings as one

Mainstream: Circulating
Mountain, Unification of
 the Heaven and human beings

as one

Non-mainstream: civic people

Superstitions to add yin-yang,

five elements to derive many

branches of life and death,

good or bad luck, and disaster or


National capital, cities,
garden design, building, and

National capital, cities, 
garden design, building, and




How does superstition of architecture fengshui begin to develop?
There are the following three reasons:

a. After analyzing and understanding the architecture fengshui from many small pieces of knowledge, in the theory of fengshui the concept of “excellent location and elite person” is the most impressive to most people. It is to express that human beings want to live in a very nice living environment. It looks that natural environment can affect the human and culture activities. There must be something for us to look for. However, if this nice living environment have been derived to no limitation, it will become superstitious for human beings.

b. Making fortune effect:

In order to make quick money, some fengshui practitioner purposely select some terrible names to explain through unreasonable method and to accompany with ghost or spirit to collect money from their believers. For example, if there is a pointed stone behind the building directly to face this building, after long-term experience of human being, most people will feel scared about this pointed stone. But they do not understand the reason. We will create a terrible name to call this, such as jiansha (arrow evil) or qiansha (dagger evil). In fact, this irregular structure of pointed stone can produce irregular turbulent wind by modern scientific point, which may cause human body uncomfortable. In the modern society, there are numerous artificial electromagnetic pollution can direct affect and reflect onto human body to cause damage.

c. Mysterious effect:

Most fengshui practitioners won’t share their experience to others. Because they won’t pass their secret easily to others or sell their secret in very high price, this makes the fengshui development become even more mysterious and to slow down fengshui development. If we cannot open this knowledge to all interested people and explain in modern scientific language, it will remain the same as its beginning of this knowledge.

2. Scientific basis of the concept of the heaven, the earth, and human beings to integrate as one of architecture fengshui

2.1. Structure characteristics of architecture fengshui

In order to reach the purpose to store the wind and to accumulate the qi, ancient Chinese developed special structure characteristics of Chinese fengshui. The four sides of the building become qinglong at the left, baihu at the right, xuanwu in the front, and zhuque in the posterior. It is surrounded by the four sides to spread the structure of one layer by one layer. Each mountain should face directly toward the xuexin (core heart). In the other words, architecture fengshui should like this: surrounded by water, counted against the mountain in the back, circulated by the left and right sand mountain, to face a round arch door, and to pass through the building along water. This location should be like to be circulated by the mountain and surrounded by water with very beautiful green mountain and clean water.

Ideal location of architecture fengshui is shown on figure 1 as following and demonstration picture of architecture of Ancient city of Nanjing (left) and Luoyang (right) during Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty




Figure 1. Ideal location of architecture fengshui


Figure 2. Demonstration picture of architecture of Ancient city of Nanjing (left) and Luoyang (right)
during Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty


2.2. Structure of architecture fengshui to decide its function

According to structure to decide its function, architecture fengshui demonstrates the holistic thought of unification of the heave and human beings as one of ancient Chinese. There are two major function: One is the high stability of earth to integrate with human beings as one and unification of the heaven and human beings as one.

2.2.1. Thought of earth to integrate with human beings as one of architecture fengshui demonstrating scientific concept

The architecture fengshui has the characteristics to store the wind, to accumulate the qi, to encircle mountain and to surround water. One single building, in general, appears to be a rectangular-shape building. Whole architecture fengshui is also built along the mountain. Using the middle axial line as symmetry to build the rectangular-shape buildings, they demonstrate highly stable building structure. This building style has thought more natural environment to affect human beings. Because they have stable characteristics, this is all considered by the modern buildings. The distribution of architecture fengshui of the Imperial Palace in the figure 3 appears the architecture fengshui characteristics to be zhi-wu symmetric and to build along the mountain.


Figure 3. The architecture fengshui distribution of the Imperial Palace
demonstrating scientific theory of architecture fengshui


a. Building structure can express the principle of the minimal energy in physics:

Architecture fengshui wants all building to be built on the flat land, not on the top of mountain or the slope of the hill, which has the lower dynamical energy or force energy. Building cannot be built on the deformed earth, which has low elasticity. Because the principle of fengshui is based on storing wind and accumulating qi, as well as circulated mountain and surrounded water, the external environment of the building can protect very efficient to stop wind blow directly. Thus, fengshui building can reduce wind blow speed. Therefore, it will reduce to be direct stricken by the wind. Fengshui building needs to prevent water and wind direct strike and bouncing back strike. This can prevent direct force of water and wind.

b. Green mountain, clean water, and surrounded by water are very useful for human being to survive in natural ecological concept. How can wind affect on the building? In order to manage the ideal building, we only consider the shape and size of building but not deformed shape of solid building structure. In comparison with the most buildings in the same plane to rotate, the major concern is to consider the rotation of wind blow force effect. At the same height condition, we only consider rotation force. During the rotation process of the house, constant inertia (J) is larger, it will become the highest stable.


Figure 4. Rotating demonstration of the rectangular plate, the axial turning center
and the vertical plate; and the solid core circular plate, the axial turning along diameter

From consideration of the rotation inertia of the anti-wind strike, the rectangular-shape structure and circular-shape structure of single one building can reach its maximum of rotation inertia. Thus, it has the maximal stable. However, it is very usual to see a circular-shape building. The rectangular-shape building is to be considered the most traditional building structure in China. In the group buildings, most building is to consider square-shape or rectangular-shape. It will distribute in symmetry to reduce the energy flow. Because the triangular-shape or irregular-shape building demonstrate higher energy and very unstable, thus it is very unusual to be seen in China. Most buildings are built against the mountain behind the building to count their back on the mountain that can become a stable integration as one unification. Wind coefficient and ratio of width and length should be calculated careful in the model. In this, B is to against the wind of length. D is to the tail wind of length.

Wind blows direction and rectangular plane is constant vertical. The tail wind and oblique wind, and rotation direction are average wind coefficient. We can derive as followings: CD (z ) , CL (z ) and CM (z ); the pulse movement value can derive as C′D(z ) , C′L (z ) and C′M (z ); and after calculation the result reveals D/B ratio between 1-2, which has the best testing result of anti-wind strike. (1) We have the following model result in figure 5. (Lin N, Liang P, et al,)



Figure 5. Curve relation of wind coefficient and ratio of width and length of rectangular-shape building can analyze from above to understand easily why and what ancient people thought. Thus, we have the following two conclusions:


a. Gentle wind blowing slowly

The ideal living environment should have gentle wind to blow slowly that is suitable for living space. According to modern science to explain the wind, it should be within the stratified layer. It should not have strong wind to produce turbulent or disorder wind. We should consider to live in the stratified layer of wind where we can live for very long. This is one of the major consideration of self-health for modern human beings, because strong wind can carry sharp particles to affect human health.

b. Building should be located at the flat land

Ancient people thought that it can be much stable to build a house on the flat land. Building built on the slope of the hill is very dangerous. By using modern scientific viewpoint, building on the slope of the hill will always slides down movement or deformed force energy. This can affect the potential psychological effect to human beings. Even modern building is built on the unstable or deformed land, which have potential deformed land to become very unstable.

2.2.2. Layout of building should consider the qi first. The qi has the characteristics of flow. Human beings and modern scientific device can feel and detect the qi having the followings:

a. Essential qi of human body: This includes air (such as O2、CO2、H2O、N2 et al), water, vaporization water (direct water and plant water). They are the essential source for building ecology, which is the major components of architecture fengshui. The characteristics of green mountain, clean water, circulated mountain and surrounded water to be explained modern scientific languages are composed of certain degree of negative ions, suitable temperature to benefit human health. This is the best way to reach the concept of “unification of the heaven and human beings as one”.

Clarity of qi or not: Green mountain and clean water are the most important reason of clean qi. Dried mountain and contaminated water is considered very cloudy qi. The cloudy qi is the most contraindication of fengshui, which is considered not very good for our health. The ecological environment disaster had forced several ancient culture to disappear from history.

b. General process of human qi and fortune qi coming true fortune effect: We always expect that more people gather at certain location to bring more business. That will make fortune for our business. For example, a new subway is built. It will bring more people to subway station. Thus, house price surrounding the subway will increase. Architecture fengshui may be supposed the subway can bring more business to make fortune. However, subway is only the carrier direct or indirect to make fortune. The main original source to make fortune is more people to gather at the subway station. Business buildings are built at the center of the city that can explain that gathering people is the direct source to make fortune. However, most fengshui practitioners rarely or do not mention gathering people in the theory of fengshui. Instead, fengshui practitioners emphasize on connecting fortune to roads or streets. This is already distorted the main reason for making fortune in the fengshui theory.

It should understand the potential qi and disappearing qi in creation of making fortune. The potential qi can be defined as every potential or opening factors can bring more people gathering. It includes under-designed and under-constructed subway, highway, policies and so on. The disappearing qi can be defined as every potential or opening factors can reduce people gathering. It includes deficient resources, human panic, high oil price and so on.

There is one exception that temple or church is very quiet, clean qi. Even there are many people gathering around at these sites, it won’t affect any to business. Architecture fengshui always emphasizes to keep away from these locations.

c. The qi exchanges with the universe, such as microwave, which is the major material foundation to accomplish the unification of the heaven and human beings as one.

d. The sensational qi, such as light and temperature, is not the mainstream of architecture fengshui.


What is the concept of the qi in the traditional fengshui?

The major component of the qi include three parts: First is the meaning of the qi. It always describes that, “Cloud is the qi of the mountains and rivers” (Shuo Wen Jie Zi “Explaining Simple and Analyzing Compound Characters” by Shen Xu of han Dynasty) “Mountain and water are the qi of yin and yang.” (Qin Rang Hai Jiao Jing) “To eat is flavor and flavor is qi.” (Da Dai Li: Shi Dai) Secondly, the properies of qi include, “The properties of qi consist of yin and yang. When it blows, it is wind. When it ascends, it becomes cloud. When it descends, it becomes rain. When it soakes with the earth, it will produce the qi, which will create all things.” “The qi is filled at every place. Each location has its own qi. The yang qi flows with wind. The yin qi runs with water.” (Xiong Zhua: Jing Mu by Ming-Nan Gao) “The qi can be unlimited size and powerful strength. We can nurture it soft without any harm, It can be filled all around of the heaven and the earth.” (Meng Zi: Gong Sun Chao) Thirdly, function and effect of qi includes, “The earth qi can nourish human beings from the below that is deep and slow. The heaven qi is to raise the body of human beings that is floating and very quick. Thus, our living building is to receive good qi from the earth and also desire to accompany the nourish qi from the heaven.” (Xiong Zhua: Jing Mu) “The inrternal qi is for our life. The external qi is to form our structure. Multiplication of the internal qi and external qi is why fengshui is created.” (Qing Niao San Shen Zhuan Jing) “Unification qi of the heaven and the earth as one is for all living beings to grow.” (Lun Hen: Zi Ran)

The structure of the qi in fengshui includes living qi, dead qi, yin qi, yang qi, soil qi, earth qi, flying qi, accumulation qi, concentration qi, qi meridian, and primitive qi. No matter it is alive or the dead, only activating qi is good sign. Therefore, the primary purpose of fengshui is to control and regulate the qi. In the other words, it is to look for the living qi. The qi in the classic theory of fengshui is always composed of matter. It is thought that the qi is the primitive element of the world. It can change to many different forms to become mountain, to become water, to fly in the sky, to run underground, and to nurture everything in the earth.

2.2.3. Ecological thought in architecture fengshui: Ecology is to study the scientific knowledge the relationship between all living beings, and living beings and environment. At the present time, human beings have to face environmental disaster, natural resource deficiency, and population increase. Under these many serious problems, ecology is thought to be one way to solve those major problems by scientific proposal and methods. Many principles in ecology can be applied to human beings daily life. Ecological components in architecture fengshui have the following two principles: First, living harmony between natural environment and human beings; Secondly, how to recognize and use our environment through practice and to apply in architecture fengshui, its purpose is to reach the maximal condition of unification of the heaven and human beings as one to have the best living environment.

In Chinese architecture fengshui, big mountain must be covered with green plants. Any mountain without any plants or covered with stone, called “sha qi”, will destroy the fengshui. Green mountain and clean running water in the natural ecological environment is the major component of architecture fengshui. The major function of green plants in the architecture fengshui is to keep the qi alive, to adjust the necessity of environment (oxygen and temperature), to protect the sha qi (including turbulent wind and electromagnetic wave), and to reduce the speed of wind to blow the house and human beings directly.

From these several viewpoints, architecture fengshui is to accomplish self-designed idea to maintain green mountain and clean running water. This concept is very compatible to living philosophy in the modern living quality to develop our society
persistently and to live in a ecological environment.

Water is also one of the required conditions of architecture fengshui. The major function of water includes: It can maintain clean air and consistent temperature. It can help human beings health and grow plants. Water should always keep very clean and surround the living building. On the contrary, if water of river runs very straight through our living environment and with contaminated water, it will be very disadvantage to our health and plants to grow. Thus, clean running water to be surrounded the living environment is the major requirement of unification of the heaven and human beings as one. Someone has proposed that water surrounding the living environment has the advantage to irrigate our land.

Fengshui practitioners are always supposed that water is the main component to make fortune. Is there any reasonable explanation for this? It may helpful in some ways but not direct to us. If we look back ancient history, fortune is always to accompany with water. By using the concept of water pipe, water is the main artery to carry fortune between two places in the ancient time. Big cities are always just next to big rivers or lakes. Our food and daily living things are all transported over water. Thus, water in the ancient time means money and fortune. However, time has changed. In the modern time, streets always mean money and fortune. This concept becomes part of the fengshui basic philosophy, even today all fengshui texts are still based on this theory. In fact, no matter water or street ancient people all thought that they were the carrier to exchange the goods and money. In the modern day, the vehicles and methods to exchange the goods and money are expanded even wider. The transportation methods can include advertisement, railroad, subway, investment, and so on. They all can become carriers to make fortune and money in the modern society. Thus, unless water can create to make fortune and money, it should be through the activities of all human beings.

2.2.4. Thought of unification of the heaven and human beings as one in architecture fengshui has its special meaning to include scientific concept. In comparison to other ancient cultures around the world, Chinese architecture fengshui can express more about thought of unification of the heaven and human beings as one. This is the most characteristics Chinese universe concept. This thought is the concrete appearance of unification of the heaven and human beings as one to our daily life building. The thought of unification of the heaven and human beings as one can trace back as far as beginning of Yi Jing period. It is related to the process to praise the heaven and god. We have to emphasize that unification of the heaven and human beings as one is to indicate message transmission to outer space, especially the Sun. It does not discuss the electromagnetic message transmission and exchange between our human beings.

Many different types of electromagnetic waves from the solar radiate out radiation energy. Analyzing the spectrum of the solar, the wave length of the electromagnetic waves of the sun almost covers all electromagnetic spectrum, which ranges from 10~9m high energy γ radiation to 104m long frequency long wave of radio. In these waves, the visible light and infrared can bring the light and heat to the earth. This radiation is pretty constant stable. The short waves, such as ultraviolet ray, x-ray, and γ-ray, are only composed of very small portion of the solar waves. They change their radiation amount with the violent changed activities of the solar that can affect very serious to us.

How can the message from the heaven affect human beings? In the 1980s, scientists began to propose the concept of the message effect, which is the low strength millimeter waves to affect living beings. (1982) In the mid-1990s, Russian scientists proposed that molecular peptides to adjust theory by millimeter wave on the living beings. Regarding to the concept of message effect of the low strength millimeter biological effect, it can be accepted by many scientists, because it has been proved by holistic analysis theory. Water has the most powerful ability to absorb millimeter waves. Millimeter radiation can provide energy to free water molecules selectively. It also can change random status of the changed water environment. Thus, it can produce a phase change of biochemical systemic reaction. Millimeter radiation can work on water molecules to induce protein structure changed, which can affect enzyme activities and synthesis of ATP. Millimeter radiation can work on water molecules to affect the properties of the intra-and extra-cellular medium, which can change the function the membrane. This important information of millimeter radiation can be used and applied to treat living beings. It is also very important meaning that the message effect of the millimeter radiation from the outer space can be randomly applied any fields.

The already known millimeter radiation in the natural environment is from the solar, the planets, and cloud. Because the oxygen molecular layer, fog, rain, snow, and hail can cause dispersion absorption, which cannot radiate to the ground. Therefore, it can only affect very minimum to human beings. In the human body and other living beings system, they all exist all proper resonance and vibration process in their daily activities. They include electromagnetic resonance of millimeter waves. It is very important to protect and to live in a normal living function. If we define the minimal spectrum to absorb from the air, called air transmission window, there are three window spectrum below 100GHz, which includes 19GHz, 35GHz, and 90GHz.

The geological structure of architecture fengshui is similar to the parabolic satellite antenna. The reflection surface is composed of four sides, which is like parabolic conduction surface or boundary surface. The future fengshui building is located at the focal point or above the focal point of the parabolic surface (according to change with the message reception direction). By using the geometry characteristics of parabolic surface, the parabolic antenna can change the direction of weak message (human activities message) to the direction of strong message. Thus, signals from the outer space can absorb through green plants of big mountain to reflect effectively toward fengshui building region.

Therefore, the structure characteristics of fengshui building can exchange message between human beings and outside environment to accomplish the unification of the heaven and human being as one. Parabolic antenna has the following properties that all parallel microwaves reflect on the parabolic surface, which will converge all reflection ray at the focal point; or any parallel microwave ray entering the parabolic surface, all reflection ray will converge at one point of the axial line. On the contrary, the light emits from the focal point to the parabolic surface. All reflection ray will reflect parallel with the axial line of the parabolic surface. The barren rocks without being covered with green plants has strong reflection of electromagnetic ray higher than 30Hz, which will harm human beings.

Although wet land and green plants also have strong reflection effect for electromagnetic ray higher than 300MHz. The surrounding water and green plants can absorb electromagnetic ray. This includes microwave spectrum, such as 19GHz, 35GHz, and 90GHz, from the atmosphere window. It can reduce the strength of microwave effectively. Even it is relatively low, in a large-scale region microwave reflection to building can cause certain degree message effect and biological effect.

How can architecture fengshui reveal the concept of unification of the heaven and human beings as one? In the traditional Chinese philosophy, it always requires the heaven, the earth and human beings to integrate as one. Since ancient Chinese architecture fengshui always prevail with the thought to worship and seek the heaven and god. It appears practically in the followings:

a. The circulated mountain and surrounded water of geographic characteristics of architecture fengshui is very similar to parabolic antenna. The fengshui building is built at the focal point or above focal point to exchange the message wave (microwave) of the outside environment maximally.

b. Green plants and water to absorb and reflect the message wave of the outside world. It can reduce the message wave to radiate directly. It can exchange the microwave to become suitable site for message effect and biological effect requirement of the human body.

c. Architecture fengshui should avoid the barren mountain. The external material wave will reflect directly from the barren mountain to the human body and to harm the human body.

Thus, architecture fengshui is a perfect building to integrate the heaven, the earth and human beings as one. Famous scientific historian, Joseph Needham of United Kingdom, thought, “While Greek and Indian develops mechanical nucleus theory, Chinese develop organic universal philosophy.” “There are no other places in the world like Chinese to develop enthusiastically in their great thought. Human beings cannot live away from natural law. Important buildings, such as palace and temple, should be considered this philosophy. This concept also applies in the cities or house in the village. They all reveal one special feeling of the universal pattern. They all based on symbolism of direction, seasons, wind blow direction, and stars.” (Needham J)


3. Conclusion

The origin and development of architecture fengshui is closely related to the developing history of Chinese culture. This is the evidence and reflection of ancient Chinese culture. The characteristics of architecture fengshui of circulated mountain and surrounded water, storing win and accumulating qi have strong evidence of modern scientific thought. It is perfect appearance of the unification of the heaven and human beings as one to demonstrate in architecture fengshui.



1. Lin N, Liang P, et al, Experimental Investigation on Local Wind Force of High-Rise Building, Journal of Vibration Engineering, 2003,16(4):409-414.

2. Needham J, Science and Civilization in China, Volume III: Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and Earth, Cambridge Univ. Press, 1959, Chinese Translation by Science Press, 1975, PP337-338, (Beijing).